Parliamentary and presidential systems are two types of government systems that have been adopted by different countries around the world. These systems have distinct differences in terms of their structure, powers, and responsibilities of the executive and legislative branches of government.
The parliamentary system is a type of representative democracy where the executive branch is accountable to the legislative branch. In this system, the head of state (typically a monarch or president) serves as a symbolic figurehead while the real power is held by the prime minister, who is chosen by the parliament. The parliament can remove the prime minister through a vote of no confidence. This system is used in countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, and India.
The presidential system, on the other hand, is a type of democratic system where the executive branch is separate from the legislative branch and is not accountable to it. The president, who is directly elected by the people, serves as both the head of state and the head of government. The president has the power to veto legislation and appoint judges and other officials. This system is used in countries such as the United States, Brazil, and Mexico.
Separation of Powers:
One of the key differences between these two systems is the separation of powers. In a parliamentary system, the executive and legislative branches are closely connected. While in a presidential system, they are separate. This can lead to a more efficient decision-making process in a parliamentary system, as the executive branch can rely on the support of the legislative branch, while in a presidential system, the executive branch may have to compromise with the legislative branch in order to pass legislation.
Stability of Government:
Another difference between these two systems is the stability of the government. In a parliamentary system, the government can be more stable as the prime minister can rely on the support of the parliament. While in a presidential system, the president may face opposition from the legislative branch, leading to gridlock and government shutdowns.
The accountability of the executive branch is another difference between these two systems. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is accountable to the legislative branch. While in a presidential system, the president is accountable directly to the people. This can lead to more direct representation in a presidential system, but can also result in a lack of accountability in the event of executive abuse of power.
Which System is Applicable in Pakistan:
As, we are in a developing Country, the presidential system may be suited to us. Because history has taught us this during the eras of Ayub, Zia and Musharraf. Highest GDPs were recorded in these eras. Some presidential democracy advocate point out that those were not democratic regimes but these regimes proved that Presidential system is best for Pakistan. The west is teaching nations like Pakistan that Parliamentary system leads to progress of a country but they have Presidential system in their countries.
In conclusion, both parliamentary and presidential systems have their own strengths and weaknesses. It is up to each country to determine which system works best for their particular needs and political culture. Whether it is a parliamentary or presidential system; the most important factor is the accountability of the government to the people and the protection of individual rights and freedoms.