The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

The history of the Philippines started with the inrush of its first humans. It is believed that they used rafts and boats virtually 60,000 years ago with groups of diverse people set in the archipelago. Some of these groups started to develop and expand into worthier settlements in the next thousands of years. Austronesians, speakers of the Malaya- Polynesian language began to victorious in the successive wave near 4000 B.C. According to the existing vestige a jade culture existed in these lands, starting with the Neolithic era. By 1000 B.C.

It is believed that the inhabitants of the archipelago have ripened into four unshared kinds of peoples. Tribal groups, warrior societies, the petty plutocracy, the Harbor civilization. Also, a fact that metallurgy reached the archipelago due to trade with India.

Around 300- 100 A.D., the seafaring people of the islands began to trade with Indian kingdom in the Malay Archipelago, and the nearby east Indian principalities, raising influence from both Hinduism and Buddhism. Some cultures of present-day Vietnam showed vestige of an wide-stretching trade network. Artifacts and goods were traded such as glass, agate, or gold. There were moreover other items present in the region which were most likely imported, including ear ornaments that have been found in archeological sites of Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan.

The Indian culture influenced the southeast Asian region starting with the first-century A.D. During the period of south Indian Pallava destiny and the north Indian Gupta empire, Indian culture spread to south Asia and reached the Philippines, which led to the establishment of new kingdoms largely influenced by the Indian culture and traditions.

The stage inscribed in the oldest Philippine document found so far, the Laguna copperplate inscription in 900 A.D. The details in the document are written in Kawi script. It is the primeval document that shows the use of mathematics in pre-colonial- Philippine society.

In the years leading up to 1000 A.D., there were once several marine time societies existing in the islands but there was no unifying political state encompassing the unshortened Philippine archipelago. Instead, the region was divided into numerous semi-autonomous city-states under the rule of plutocracy. While several states existed withal the highland societies. These small structures alternated between stuff part of or stuff influenced by larger Asian empires, Maja Pahit, the Ming Dynasty of China, and Brunei.

Virtually 1225 A.D., the nation of MA- I, a Buddhist pre-Hispanic island state centered in Mindoro, attracted traders and shipping from the kingdom of Ryukyu to the empire of japan. Chao juked a surcharge inspector in Fukien province, china wrote the “Description of unpitying people”, describing trade with pre-colonial state. Its people were noted for their honesty in trade.

Much of what is now Indonesia was ruled by the Maja Pahit empire. During the 1300s this empire ruled over Luzon island and the Sulu Archipelago. With increasingly and increasingly influence on these islands, skirmishes, and battles moreover existed. Some local tribes were waging unabated guerrilla warfare versus them. Eventually, the kingdom of Luzon regain independence from Maja Pahit without the wrestle of Manila in 1365 and Sulu moreover reestablished independence, and in vengeance, assaulted the Maja Pahit province of Brunei surpassing a squadron from capita; crush them out.

The start of the Islamic era in Indonesia set the swoon of the Maja Pahits as its provinces sooner seceded and became self-sustaining empires. In 1380, Makhdum Karim, an Arab trader born in Johor, arrived in Sulu from Malacca and brought Islam to the Philippines. Additionally, Shareef ul Hashim, an Arab Muslim explorer, established the sultanate of Sulu by converting its previous ruler the Hindu king, Raja Baguinda, to Islam and then marrying his daughter.

The Sultanate of Mugindanau rose to prominence at the end of the 15th century. Meanwhile, Shariff Mohammed of Johor introduced Islam on the Island of Mindanao. The religion was introduced to the zone by Muslim missionaries and traders from the  Middle East, India, and Malay regions who propagated Islam to Sulu and Maguindanao.

As before, when Buddhist and Hindu cultures influenced the archipelago, the same specimen happened with Muslim cultures. Upon the secession of Brunei from the Maja Pahit empire, they imported the Arab Amir from Mecca, Sharif Ali, and became an self-sustaining sultanate. The new religion started to grow roots in the Philippines through the conquest and conversion of local leaders in the next decades. Moreover, Islam was remoter strengthened by the inrush of the Philippines traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia.

In 1521, the Spanish reached the archipelago through an trek virtually the world led by Portuguese-born Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan. Magellan landed on the island tabbed Homon Hon, ultimatum the islands he saw for the Spanish. He established friendly relations with some of the local leaders. And converted some of them to roman catholicism. Because the Philippines are a large archipelago, the Spanish started to explore many islands. However, the explorer, Ferdinand Magellan, was killed during the wrestle of Mactan versus the local ruler, Lapu- Lapu.

Over the next several decades, other Spanish expeditions were dispatched to the islands.  In 1543, an trek was led to the islands naming them: the Phillippines, in honor of Phillip of Austria, who became Phillip II of Spain on January 16th, 1556. The name was then extended to the whole archipelago later on in the Spanish era. European colonialization began in Earnest when Spanish explorer Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and worked the first European settlements in Cebu.

Through diplomatic and military theft of some lands, incorporating local states, including the kingdom of Tondo, the Spaniards established Manila as the wanted of the Spanish east indies. In 1578, the Castilian war erupted between the Christians, Spaniards, and Muslim Bruneians over tenancy of the Philippine archipelago. The Christian troops were so diverse due to often stuff made up of people under Spanish rule including native Americans, namely Aztecs, Mayans, and Incans, who were gathered and sent from Mexico and South America to be led by Spanish officers that had worked together with native Filipinos in military campaigns wideness Southeast Asia.

The Muslim workmate was moreover very diverse though. They were supported by the ottoman empire with their troops consisting of Malay warriors and expeditionary forces sent by the ottomans; which included mainly Turks, Egyptians, Swahilis, Somalis, Indians, etc. The mismatch ended without time. Just 20 years without the conquest of Luzon, remarkable progress existed in the work of colonization of islands and Christianity. A cathedral was built in the municipality of Manila with an episcopal palace. Other monasteries and churches were built wideness islands and increasingly and increasingly people started to convert to Christianity.

Furthermore, the Spanish and Mexican families settled in new islands making a stronger community. Much of the archipelago came under Spanish rule, creating the first unified political structure known as the Philippines. Spanish colonial rule saw the introduction of Christianity, the lawmaking of law, and the oldest modern university in Asia. The Philippines was ruled by the Mexico- based viceroyalty of New Spain, and after, the colony was directly governed by Spain. Many of the local people revolted in the next century due to some abuses made by Spanish authorities. Their rule ended without the Americans Spanish war at the end of the 19th century in 1898. The Philippines became a territory of the United States.

The United States then established an Insular government to rule the Philippines. In 1907, the elected turnout was set up by the popular elections. The U.S. promised independence in the Jones Act to the country and the Philippine suzerainty was established in 1935, as a ten-year interim step surpassing full independence. But surpassing gaining total freedom, in 1942 during world war II, the Philippines was occupied by the Japanese forces.

By 1945 the U.S liberated the Philippines and the treaty of Manila in 1946 established an self-sustaining Philippine republic. The period of their independence was marked by internal skirmishes, a smaller period of dictatorship, but moreover huge progress and development, with Manuel Roxas rhadamanthine the first President of the self-sustaining republic of the Philippines. The U.S ceded its sovereignty over the the Philippines on July 4, 1946, as scheduled. However, the Philippine economy remained highly dependent on the U.S market.

Roxas died suddenly without a heart wade in April 1948, and the vice president, Elpidio Quirino ruled the country until 1953. Some communist partisans existed in the islands but were defeated in the 50s. additionally, an important event happened in the middle of the 1960s. Ferdinand Marcos took power in 1965 and ruled until 1986.  This era includes the final years of the third republic (1965- 1972) and the Philippines under martial law 1972- 1981). His reign was marked by dictatorship and instability. In 1986, Ferdiand was replaced by Maria Corazon Aquino. Up to the current day, six other presidents rule the Philippines.

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1 Comment

Hammad Ahmad · April 26, 2023 at 6:16 am

Good job.Keep it up!

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